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                        "THE PARABLES OF JESUS"

               The Laborers In The Vineyard (Mt 20:1-16)


1. In our previous study in "The Parables Of Jesus"...
   a. We saw that "an unforgiving spirit" has no place in the hearts of
      those who would make up the kingdom of heaven
   b. Cf. "The Unmerciful Servant", Mt 18:21-35

2. Our next parable identifies another attitude of heart that has no 
   place in the kingdom...
   a. This parable is known as "The Laborers In The Vineyard"
   b. Found in Mt 20:1-16, let's begin with a careful reading of it

3. The meaning of this parable has challenged many expositors, and 
   explanations offered have been varied

[While admittedly difficult, I believe the main point can be determined
with a fair degree of certainty.  Especially if we begin by taking into


      1. Jesus had been approached by this man with a question 
         concerning eternal life
      2. In the course of their conversation, Jesus challenged the 
         young man to give up all and follow Him
      3. The man went away sorrowful, unable to accept the challenge

      1. Jesus used this opportunity to teach how difficult it is for
         the rich to enter the kingdom of heaven
      2. This causes the disciples to wonder who then could be saved?
      3. Jesus' response is that with God all things are possible

      1. Unlike the rich young man, Peter and the other disciples had
         accepted the challenge to give up all and follow Jesus - cf. 
         Mt 4:18-22
      2. So he asks:  "Therefore what shall we have?"
      3. It appears that Peter is wanting to know...
         a. If the rich can be saved (though barely, and with the help
            of God)...
         b. What more will those receive, who have given up all to 
            follow Christ?
      4. Peter's question could be viewed as coming from a commercial 
         or mercenary spirit...
         a. I.e., having some sort of personal profit as a chief aim
         b. I.e., motivated solely by a desire for personal gain
      5. Peter's motive may have been pure, in which case Jesus' 
         complete answer may have been designed to be a "pre-emptive 
         strike" against any improper motives

   D. THE REPLY GIVEN BY JESUS - Mt 19:28-30
      1. First, an assurance...
         a. Specifically, to the apostles - Mt 19:28
            1) In the "regeneration", they will be judging the twelve 
               tribes of Israel
            2) This promise could refer either to:
               a) Their role as apostles in the gospel age following 
                  Pentecost - cf. Mt 16:19
               b) A special role following the return of Christ when He
                  comes to judge the world - cf. Mt 25:31-ff
         b. Generally, to all disciples - Mt 19:29
            1) In this life, a "hundredfold" houses, brothers, sisters,
            2) In the age to come, "everlasting life" - cf. Mk 10:29-30
            3) I.e., those who give up all will receive more than 
               enough in return
      2. But then, a warning - Mt 19:30
         a. "But many who are first will be last, and the last first."
         b. A rather cryptic warning, one repeated again in Mt 20:16

[Since this warning both precedes and follows the parable we are 
studying, it is evident that the parable was told to explain the 
warning!  And since the warning was first given in response to Peter's
question, any explanation of the parable should be based upon the 
setting that preceded its telling.

With this in mind, let's proceed to consider...]


      1. Early in the morning, a landowner hires laborers to work for 
         an agreed upon wage - Mt 20:1-2
      2. Later, at different hours of the day, he finds more and hires
         them also, for a fair but unspecified wage - Mt 20:3-7
      3. At the end of the day, they are all paid equally, which 
         irritates those who had worked all day - Mt 20:8-12
      4. The landowner responds to the complainers...
         a. I treated you fairly, for you received according to our 
            agreement - Mt 20:13-14a
         b. I wish to pay the others the same - Mt 20:14b
            1) Do I have not the right? - Mt 20:15a
            2) Are you envious, because I am gracious? - Mt 20:15b
      5. Jesus concludes by repeating the warning - Mt 20:16 (some 
         manuscripts add another warning:  "For many are called, but 
         few chosen")

      1. Many and varied have been the interpretations; for example...
         a. The various bands of workers are the O.T. saints; those 
            called at the eleventh hour are the apostles
         b. The workers first called are the Jews, those called last 
            are the Gentiles
         c. The parable represents the whole gospel age up to Christ's
            return, and the workers are groups saved at various periods
         d. It refers to different periods of a person's life in which
            he may respond to the Lord: some responding early, others 
            late in life
      2. Since this parable is in response to Peter's question, I 
         a. That the first workers represent the apostles and others 
            like them
            1) Who are called by Christ through the gospel early in 
            2) And who therefore may labor long and hard in the 
               "vineyard" (i.e., the kingdom of God)
         b. The other workers represent those who are called by Christ
            via the gospel at various times
            1) Some of whom are called late in life
            2) Who do not have opportunity to do as much for the Lord
      3. In light of this interpretation, the main point of the parable
         a. What everyone receives will be more than "fair" ("Did you 
            not agree with me...?")
         b. No one has the right to question the "generosity" of the 
            Lord ("Is it not lawful for me to do what I wish with my 
            own things?")
         c. Those who may serve long and hard should not be "envious" 
            if others receive the same reward ("Is your eye evil 
            because I am good?")
         d. Therefore no one should serve the Lord with a commercial or
            mercenary spirit!
            1) The very danger Peter was close to falling into by the 
               question he raised!
            2) A danger to which we are all susceptible!
      4. Perhaps I should stress that this parable is NOT saying that
         those who purposely put off obeying Christ until the last 
         moment can be saved!
         a. If that were the point, the parable would have been worded
            1) Notice that those who responded at the late hour of the
               day had not been working "Because no one hired us" - Mt 
            2) They accepted the offer as soon as they heard it, though
               late in the day
            -- They were not people who turned down many opportunities
               to accept the offer to labor in the vineyard, only to 
               accept at the last hour!
         b. Whether one can be saved at the last moment after lifelong
            rejection of the gospel is another question
            1) One which only the Lord can rightfully answer
            2) However, notice what is said of those who remain in a 
               condition of rejecting the gospel:
               a) They judge themselves unworthy of everlasting life 
                  - cf. Ac 13:46
               b) They are storing up for themselves wrath in the day 
                  of wrath - cf. Ro 2:4-11


1. It is my understanding that the proper application of this parable 
   is this...
   a. When we are called by the gospel to obey Christ, we should 
      respond at once!
      1) For some, we may hear the invitation early in life
      2) Others may not come to know of the gospel until late in life
   b. As laborers in the vineyard (i.e., the kingdom), we should work 
      diligently in whatever time we may have left
      1) We may be blessed to offer a full life of service to the Lord
      2) Or we may only have a short time
   c. We should do whatever we can without a commercial or mercenary 
      spirit (e.g., "Do I get more because I gave more?")

2. With this parable, we learn more about those in the kingdom of
   a. Just as the parable of "The Unmerciful Servant" teaches us there
      is no place in the kingdom of heaven for "an unforgiving
   b. So the parable of "The Laborers In The Vineyard" teaches us there
      is no room in the kingdom of heaven for those with either "a
      mercenary spirit" or "an envious spirit"!

3. My fellow Christians, what is our attitude toward our service to 
   a. One of gratitude?
   b. Or one of commercialism?
   -- There is only one attitude that is acceptable!

4. For those who are not yet Christians...
   a. Why not let the gracious spirit of the "landowner" revealed in
      this parable encourage you to accept the grace of God in humble
      obedience to His gospel?
   b. Why not live out the rest of your life in grateful service to
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