Class Notes on Sacred History
Volume I: The Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Ruth and Job.
J. W. McGarvey (1893)
Table of Contents
THE LAW OF MOSES.
- Part I. Historical View of Its Enactments.
- Part II. The Fundamental Law.
- Part III. The Religious Code.
Chapter I: The Law of Sacrifices.
Chapter II: The Priesthood.
Chapter III: The Law of the Levites.
Chapter IV: Ceremonial Uncleanness.
Chapter V: The Holy Days.
Chapter VI: Sacred Vows.
Chapter VII: Witchcraft and Idolatry.
Chapter VIII: Articles of Animal Food.
Chapter IX: Personal and Domestic.
Chapter X: Ethical Precepts.
I. HISTORICAL VIEW OF ITS ENACTMENT.
1. The Covenant at mount Sinai? what? and how enacted? Ex. xix. 1-9. Had any laws been enacted before this? See Ex. xii. 1-20; xiii. 11-16.
2. When and what the first enactment after the Covenant? Ex. xix. 10, 11; xx. 1-17.
3. Where and when was the next group of enactments? Ex. xx. 21-xxiii. 19. What name was given to this group? and what ceremonial connected with it? Ex. xxiv. 3-8.
4. What the next body of statutes and when and where delivered? Lev. i. 1; xxvii. 34, cf. Ex. xl. 17; Num. x. 11, 12.
5. How many groups of laws given in the wanderings? and in what historical connections? Num. xv. 1-41; xviii. 1-xix. 22; xxvii. 1-xxx. 16; xxxv. 9-xxxvi. 13.
6. When and where the last laws given? Deut. v. 1-xxvi. 19, cf. i. 1. How many groups in all? As respects places of enactment, into what three groups may they be distributed?
II. THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW.
1. What relation did the covenant at mount Sinai sustain to all subsequent legislation? To what part of the laws of our States, then, does it correspond? 
2. What relation did the Decalogue sustain to all subsequent statutes? To what part, then, of our laws does it correspond? What, then, constituted the fundamental law of the Mosaic legislation? Why the Decalogue sometimes called "the covenant"?
3. Into what two divisions, or "tables," is the Decalogue naturally divided? What corresponding distinction can be traced between the statutes? Why are not the codes, the religious and the civil, separated in the books? What can we gain by separating them in our study of them? [Ans. Easier comparison of them with our present laws, and a better comprehension of each code.]
III. THE RELIGIOUS CODE.
THE LAW OF SACRIFICES.
- Why place this first?
§ I. REGULATIONS COMMON TO ALL ANIMAL OFFERINGS.
Ex. xx. 24; Lev. i. 5, 10, 14, 15; iii. 1, 2; iv. 3, 4, 6, 7, 13-15;
xvii. 1-9; xxii. 20-28; Deut. xii. 5-15.
1. What animals Might Be Offered. Lev. i. 2, 10, 14.
2. Condition of the Animal, and Limit as to Its Age. Lev. xxii. 20-28.
- What typified by the perfection of the animal? Cf. Heb. ix. 14; I. Pet. i. 18, 19. 
3. What Was To Be Done by the Officer? Lev. i. 3-6; iii. 1, 2; iv. 3, 4, 13-15; et. al.
4. What Was Done with the Blood? i. 5, 15; iv. 6, 7.
- What receptacle for the blood poured out at the base of the altar?
5. Where Were Sacrifices To Be Offered? Ex. xx. 24; Lev. xvii. 1-9: Deut. xii. 5-15.
(1.) Before the erection of the tabernacle. Ex. xx. 24.
(2.) After the erection of the tabernacle. Lev. xvii. 1-9.
Does this refer to killing animals only for food? 5: Deut. xii. 5.
To what sacrificing to he-goats is reference made? 7.
(3.) After the settlement in Canaan. Deut. xii. 5-15.
What change from the patriarchal custom? and why? Cf. Heb. vii. 12.
Wisdom of central place of worship?
§ II. THE SEVERAL KINDS OF OFFERINGS. Ex. xxix. 38-42;
Lev. i. 1-vi. 13,19-30; Lev. vii. 1-21; Num. xv. 1-11; xxviii. 11-15.
1. The Burnt Offering. Lev. i. 1-17.
- What its peculiarities? 8, 9, 16, 17.
- Describe the "continual burnt offering." Ex. xxix. 38-42: Lev. vi. 8-13; Num. xxvii. 1-13.
- Is the last passage a conscious repetition? Num. xxviii. 6.
- Why the repetition? Num. xxviii. 9, 11.
- Why the name?
- What difference on the sabbath? Num. xxviii. 9, 10.
- What addition on the first day of every month? Num. xxviii. 11-15. 
2. The Meal Offering. Lev. ii. 1-16.
- Of what articles? 1, 4, 5, 7, 14.
- Why the oil and frankincense?
- What of leaven and honey? 11.
- Why the prohibition?
- Why the salt? 13.
- How was this offering disposed of? 2, 3, 9, 10, 16.
- How when a priest's offering? Lev. vi. 19-23.
- What the principal occasions of meal offerings? Num. xv. 1-11.
- Meaning of meal as used in this law?
3. The Peace Offering. Lev. iii. 1-17; vii. 11-21, 28-34.
- What part burned? iii. 3-5, 9-11, 14-16.
- Disposal of the flesh? vii. 15-18, 31-34; xxii. 29, 30.
- Meaning of "wave offering," and "heave offering"?
- Restriction as to time of eating? vii. 16-18.
- Restriction as to uncleanness? 19-21.
- The occasions of peace offerings? 12, 16.
- Why the name?
- When feasting is mentioned in connections with offerings, what offerings are meant?
4. The Sin Offering. Lev. iv. 1-vi. 7, 24-30; vii. 1-10.
- What burned? vii. 1-5.
- What done with flesh? 6, 7; vi. 26, 29, 30.
- What of touching it? and of the vessel in which it was cooked? vi. 27, 28.
- What was offered for a sign of ignorance? iv. 1-3, 13, 14, 22, 23, 27, 28; v. 7, 11.
- What confession? and what promise in every case?
- When the sin is a trespass in holy things? v. 14-19.
- When it is trespass against a neighbor? vi. 1-7.
- Why add one-fifth in case of trespass?
- If an infraction of law is done in ignorance, why is it a sin?
- What  originated sin offerings?
- How many classes of offerings? and what the chief distinction between them?
§ I. THE FAMILY AND THEIR VESTMENTS.
Ex. xxviii. 1-43; xxxix. 1-43.
- Name the vestments. xxviii. 4.
- Describe in your own words the ephod. 6-12.
- The breastplate. 13-30.
- What the Urim and Thummim? 30.
- Meaning of "bear the judgment" of Israel? 30.
- Describe the blue robe. 31-35.
- Why add, "that he die not"? 35.
- Describe the crown. 36-38.
- Meaning of "bear the iniquity of holy things"? 38, cf. Lev. xxii. 9.
- Describe the coat and the mitre. 39.
- What garments for the common priests? 40-43.
- When were these garments worn? 43.
- Why no priestly robes under Christ?
§ II. THE CONSECRATION OF THE PRIESTS.
Ex. xxix. 1-37; Lev. viii. 1-36.
- What first done to the priests? Ex. xxix. 4; Lev. viii. 6.
- What second? Ex. xxix. 5, 6, 8, 9; Lev. viii. 7-9, 13.
- What third? Ex. xxix. 7; Lev. viii. 12.
- What sacrifices then offered? Ex. xxix. 10-19; Lev. viii. 14-32.
- What next done to the priests? Ex. xxix. 20, 21; Lev. viii. 22, 24, 30.
- Disposal of the second ram. Ex. xxix. 22-28, 31-34; Lev. viii. 25-32.
- What done the  next six days? Ex. xxix. 29, 30; Lev. viii. 33-36.
- What analogy to the consecration of Jesus as a priest?
§ III. SUPPORT OF THE PRIESTHOOD.
1. The Perquisites of the Altar. Num. xviii. 8-20; Lev. vii. 8.
- Paul's comment on this? I. Cor. ix. 13, 14.
2. A Tithe of the Tithe. Num. xviii. 25-28.
- On what would the amount of income depend?
- How did it compare with that of the Levites?
- How was the Lord their portion? 20.
§ IV. THE LAW OF HOLINESS FOR THE PRIESTHOOD.
Lev. xxi. 1-xxii. 33.
1. As to Defilement for the Dead. xxi. 1-3.
- Why this? xxi. 4.
2. As to Marks on the Person. 5, 6.
- Why would such marks profane the name of God? 6.
3. As to Marriage to Lewd or Divorced Women. 7, 8.
4. As to Whoredom in a Priest's Daughter. 9.
- Why the special severity?
5. The High Priest in These Particulars. 10-15.
- Reason? 15.
6. As to Bodily Perfection. 16-24.
- Why this?
7. As to Officiating When Unclean. xxii. 1-9.
8. The Persons Who Might Eat of Holy Things. 10-16. 
THE LAW OF THE LEVITES.
§ I. TAKEN IN PLACE OF THE FIRSTBORN. Num. iii. 1-51.
§ II. THEIR MEANS OF SUPPORT. Num. xviii. 21-24.
- How often was the tithe given? and where laid up? Deut. xiv. 27-29; xxvi. 12.
- How would the Levites get it to their cities?
- Who partook of it besides the Levites? Deut. xxvi. 12, 13.
- What annual tithe? and how regulated? Deut. xiv. 22-27; xii. 5-12.
- What general law in regard to the tenth of the increase? Lev. xxvii. 30-33.
- Were the people always faithful in the tithes? Mal. iii. 8-10.
§ III. THEIR DWELLING PLACES. Num. xxxv. 1-8.
- How could they be said to have no inheritance? Num. xviii. 24, et. al.
§ IV. THEIR EMPLOYMENT. Num. iii. 5-9; iv. 15, 25, 31, 32.
- Are they distinguished from the priests in Deuteronomy? Deut. xvii. 9, 18; xviii. 1-7; xxiv. 8; xxvii. 9, cf. Ezek. xliv. 15; Jer. xxxiii. 18, cf. 21.
§ I. UNCLEANNESS FROM CHILDBIRTH. Lev. xii. 1-8.
- Why the sin offering?
- The case of Joseph and Mary. 8, cf. Luke, ii. 22-24.
- What of those who lived at a great distance?
§ II. UNCLEANNESS FROM LEPROSY. Lev. xiii. 1-xiv. 57. 
- What could be affected by it? xiii. 2, 47; xiv. 34.
- Who was to decide whether it was leprosy? xiii. 2, 3, 50; xiv. 36.
- What done with a leprous person, garment, or house? xiii. 45, 46, 52; xiv. 43-45.
- How could a garment or house be leprous?
- What was to be done by a person when cured? xiv. 1-9.
- What offerings completed the process? xiv. 12-20.
- What provision for the poor? xiv. 21, 22.
- Why guilt and sin offerings required?
- What respect did Jesus pay this law? See Mark i. 44; et. al.
- How do these regulations correspond to sin and its cure under Christ?
- Distinction between pour, dip, and sprinkle recognized. xiv. 15, 16, 26, 27.
§ III. UNCLEANNESS FROM BODILY SECRETIONS. Lev. xv. 1-33.
- How many cases of uncleanness from this source?
- What the mode of cleansing? xv. 5-7; et. al.
- Purpose of this law?
§ IV. UNCLEANNESS FROM A DEAD BODY. Num. xix. 1-22.
- Provision made for this uncleanness. xix. 1-10.
- What the significance of the ashes? Heb. ix. 13, 14.
- Why not use blood itself, as in the case of the leper?
- What characteristic of blood of Christ prefigured?
- How this uncleanness contracted? and how removed? 11-19.
- What the penalty of neglect? 20-22.
- What cases of ordinary uncleanness caused by these rites? 7, 8, 10, 21.
- Why the water called "the water of separation"? 21. 
- In what case of purification was water sprinkled? and with what mingled?
- Was the significance in the water? or in the blood and ashes?
- Was water alone ever sprinkled?
- What, then, was the purpose of the water?
- What did the sprinkling of blood foreshadow? See Heb. xii. 24; I. Pet. i. 2.
- What, especially, that from the wings of the living bird?
- By what was the sprinkling always followed?
- Significance? Heb. x. 19-22.
- In all other cases of uncleanness, how was purification effected?
- What New Testament allusion to these many bathings? Heb. ix. 9, 10.
- What additions to them made by the Pharisees? Mark vii. 1-4.
THE HOLY DAYS.
§ I. THE FEAST OF THE PASSOVER.
- What the law as enacted in Egypt? Ex. xii. 14-20, 25-28, 43-51; xiii. 3-10.
- What is said of it in the book of the covenant? Ex. xxiii. 14, 15.
- Does this presuppose the former enactment? 15.
- What addition made in Leviticus? Lev. xxiii. 4-15.
- On the morrow after what Sabbath? 11.
- Significance of this first sheaf? Cf. I. Cor. xv. 20-23.
- Why eat none of the new crop till this was done?
- Was it to be done at the end of harvest? or the beginning? 10, 14, 15, cf. Deut. xvi. 9.
- What provision for the unclean and travelers? and when made?  Num. ix. 1-12, cf. Jno. xi. 55.
- What addition made in giving the law of stated burnt offerings? Num. xxviii. 16-24.
- What addition made in Deuteronomy? Deut. xvi. 1-8.
- What do these progressive additions indicate? as to the order in which the books are written?
- What was typified by the unleavened bread? I. Cor. v. 6-8.
§ II. THE FEAST OF WEEKS, OR OF HARVEST.
- What was first said of it? Ex. xxiii. 15-17; xxiv. 22.
- How the time fixed? and how the day observed? Lev. xxiii. 15-21.
- What addition made later? Num. xxviii. 26-31.
- On what day of the week did the count begin and end? Lev. xxiii. 15, 16.
- Why the bread leavened? Lev. ii. 11, cf. xxiii. 17, 20.
- What difference between this firstfruit offering and that of the paschal Sunday? Lev. xxiii. 17, cf. 10, 11.
- What is this feast called in the New Testament? Acts ii. 1.
- Reasons for the three names?
§ III. THE DAY OF TRUMPETS.
- What the law? and in what connection first given? Lev. xxiii. 23-25.
- What addition made later? Num. xxix. 1-6.
- Significance of the day? [The old New Year's Day].
- Significance of the trumpets? and who blew them?
- Where was the holy convocation held? 
§ IV. THE ANNUAL ATONEMENT.
Lev. xvi. 1-34; Num. xxix. 7-11.
1. The Conditions of Entering within the Veil. Lev. xvi. 1-4.
- Why not wear the fine robes?
- Why not go in "at all times"? 2, cf. Heb. ix. 7, 8.
2. The Offerings for the Occasion. 5-10.
3. The Atonement for the Priest and His Family. 11-14.
- A contrast with Christ. Heb. vii. 26-28.
4. The Atonement for the People. 15-19.
- Why for the tent and holy vessels? 16, 19.
5. Disposal of the Other Goat. 20-22.
- Significance for this? 22.
- What was Azazel? 22, cf. 8, 10.
6. Dress Changed and the Victims Burned. 23-28.
- Two more cases of uncleanness. 26, 28.
7. Time and General Design of the Ordinance. 29-34.
- Meaning of "afflict your souls"? 29, 31, cf. Acts xxvii. 9.
- Paul's argument on this rite. Heb. x. 1-3.
8. Extra Burnt Offerings. Num. xxix. 7-11.
§ V. THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES.
- What the first mention of it? Ex. xxiii. 14-17.
- Why the name here used?
- The time, the mode of celebration, and the design? Lev. xxiii. 33-36, 39-44.
- Why would all fruits be gathered at this time? 39.
- Where would they build the booths?
- What  good in the design?
- What addition made later? Num. xxix. 12-40.
- Comparative number of burnt offerings?
(1.) At what festivals were all the males required to assemble? Ex. xxxiv. 18, 22, 23.
(2.) In which season of the year did all occur?
(3.) Were they held at times of leisure?
(4.) What was every one required to bring? Deut. xvi. 16, 17, cf. Luke, xxi. 1-4.
(5.) Protection for the land. Ex. xxxiv. 24.
(6.) Social and political utility of the festivals? Cf. Jeroboam's policy. I. Ki. xii. 26-33.
§ VI. THE SABBATH. Ex. xvi. 23; xx. 8-11; Deut. v. 12-15.
- How observed? Lev. xix. 3, 30; xxv. 4.
§ I. THE NAZARITE VOW. Num. vi. 1-21.
- What is the vow? vi. 1, 2.
- What restrictions did it involve? 3-8.
- Why these restrictions?
- What done in case of accidental uncleanness? 9-12.
- Condition of the four mentioned in Acts, xxi. 23-27.
- What done when the vow was completed? 13-21.
- Was Paul's vow, Acts xviii. 18, the Nazarite vow? Cf. 13, 18.
- What the occasion of this vow? 
§ II. THE VOWS OF WOMEN. Num. xxx. 1-16.
- What the general law as to vows? xxx. 1-4, cf. Deut. xxiii. 21-23.
- What right of annulling? 5-16.
- Why this right of the father or husband?
§ III. REDEMPTION FROM VOWS. Lev. xxvii. 1-34.
1. In Case of a Person. xxvii. 1-8.
- Nature of the vow? 2.
2. In Case of a Beast. 9-13.
- Why let the priest set the value? 12.
3. In Case of a House. 14, 15.
- Why in last two cases add a fifth? 13, 15.
4. In Case of a Piece of Land. 16-25.
- Meaning of "the sowing of a homer of barley"? 16.
5. Firstlings not To Be Sanctified. 26, 27.
6. Devoted Things Excepted. 28, 29.
- Bearing on case of Jephthah's daughter? Judg. xi. 30, 31, 34-40.
7. Redemption of Tithes. 30-34.
- Meaning of "whatsoever passeth under the rod"? 32.
WITCHCRAFT AND IDOLATRY. 
§ I. THE LAW AGAINST WITCHCRAFT. Lev. xx. 6, 27.
- What other specifications? Deut. xviii. 9-14.
- Define these arts.
- Does the prohibition imply their reality?
- Why an abomination to the Lord?
§ II. MOLECH-WORSHIP PROHIBITED. Lev. xx. 1-5.
- How was seed given "unto Molech"? Cf. Deut. xii. 31; Jer. vii. 31; II. Chron. xxxiii. 6.
- Why the special prohibition?
§ III. ENTICING PERSONS TO IDOLATRY. Deut. xiii. 1-18.
1. When Done by a Prophet. xiii. 1-5.
- How could the sign of a false prophet come to pass? 1, 2.
- What would prove him to be a false prophet? 4, cf. Gal. i. 8.
- Why put this prophet to death? 5.
2. When Done by a Relative or Friend. 6-11.
- Why betray a friend?
3. When a Whole City Is Enticed. 12-18.
- Who was to execute this law? 14, 15.
- Suppose that individuals were found that were not participants?
- Was this punishment of idolatry, religious persecution?
ARTICLES OF ANIMAL FOOD. 
§ I. FAT AND BLOOD PROHIBITED. Lev. vii. 23-27.
- What fat is meant? 25.
- What done with the blood of game? and of slaughtered animals? Lev. xvii. 12-14; Deut. xii. 16, 24.
- What the Christian law? Cf. Acts, xv. 28, 29.
§ II. FLESH THAT DIES A NATURAL DEATH. Lev. xvii. 15, 16.
- The twenty-second case of uncleanness.
§ III. CLEAN AND UNCLEAN ANIMALS.
Lev. xi. 1-47; Deut. xiv. 1-29.
1. Beasts. Lev. xi. 1-8.
- Do the coney and the hare chew the cud?
2. Water Animals. 9-12.
3. Fowls. 13-19.
- What habit marks the unclean?
4. Winged Creeping Things. 20-23.
5. Effect of Touching the Carcase of an Unclean Animal. 24-28, 31, 39, 40.
- Twenty-third case of uncleanness.
6. Creeping Things Without Wings. 29-38.
7. Reptiles. 41-43.
8. The Reason for These Prohibitions. 44-47.
- How would the observance make them holy?
PERSONAL AND DOMESTIC. 
§ I. OFDRESS.
1. Mixed Fabrics Forbidden. Lev. xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 11.
- Why this?
2. Of Fringes. Num. xv. 38-40.
- Why the effect?
- New Testament allusion. Matt. xxiii. 5.
3. Dress of the Other Sex. Deut. xxii. 5.
- How with us?
§ II. OF PERSONAL DISFIGUREMENT. Lev. xix. 27, 28.
- Why this? Cf. Jer. xvi. 6.
§ III. INSTRUCTION OF CHILDREN. Deut. vi. 6-9, 20-25.
- Meaning of writing them on the hands and between the eyes?
- Origin of phylacteries? Matt. xxiii. 5.
1. The Love of Truth. Ex. xxiii. 1, 2, 7; Lev. xix. 16.
2. Inflexible Justice. Ex. xxiii. 3, 6, 8; Lev. xix. 15.
3. Kindness to Strangers. Ex. xxiii. 9; Lev. xix. 33, 34.
4. Kindness to an enemy. Ex. xxiii. 4, 5; Lev. xix. 17, 18.
5. Treatment of the Blind and Deaf. Lev. xix. 14.
6. Honor to the Aged. Lev. xix. 32.
7. Just Weights and Measures. Lev. xix. 35-37; Deut. xxv. 13-16. 
8. What To Do with Animals Astray, or Lost Articles Found. Deut. xxii. 1-4.
9. Kindness to Mother-birds. Deut. xxii. 6, 7.
10. Battlements on the Roof. Deut. xxii. 8.
11. Yoking an Ox and an Ass. Deut. xxii. 10.
12. Muzzling an Ox. Deut. xxv. 4, cf. I. Cor. ix. 9, 10.