ROMANS CHAPTER 1
Romans 1:1 - "Paul, a bondservant of Jesus
Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God 2 - which
He promised before through His prophets in the Holy Scriptures, 3 - concerning
His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, who was born of the seed of David according
to the flesh, 4 - and declared to be the Son of God with power according
to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead. 5 - Through
Him we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among
all nations for His name, 6- among whom you also are the called of Jesus
A. "Paul, a bondservant of Jesus Christ"
Romans 1:7 - To all who are in Rome, beloved
of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father
and the Lord Jesus Christ.
1. Paul was no longer a servant of sin,
but a servant (slave) of Jesus Christ.
2. Christians enter into voluntary servitude
to Jesus. Jesus purchased us with his blood (1 Peter 1:18-19)
B. "Called to be an apostle"
1. Literally means a "called apostle."
C. "Separated to the gospel of God"
a. An apostle was one chosen for a special
purpose. Jesus chose certain men, i.e. the twelve, to meet certain qualifications.
See Acts chapter 1.
2. There were enemies of Paul who attacked his authenticity
as an apostle. He made it plain that he was chosen for his apostleship
by Christ himself.
3. See Galatians 1:1
4. Paul was specially chosen and commissioned
by the Lord, by means of appearing to him, "as one out of due time." See
1 Corinthians 15:8. See also Acts 9:15.
1. Paul had been separated from the
religion of his fathers, his family, and his friends. When he became a
Christian he was cut off from his old lifestyle.
D. "which He promised before through His prophets
in the Holy Scriptures, 3 - concerning His Son Jesus Christ our Lord"
2. It was a also positive. He had been separated,
set apart, to the gospel of God. The gospel was the glad tiding of the
death, burial and resurrection of Christ. See 1 Corinthians 15:1-8.
3. The gospel of God entailed some things. (Roy
a. Obedience to the gospel
b. Willingness to teach the gospel
c. Willingness to contend for the truth of the
d. Willingness to be governed by the gospel.
1. Jewish Christians would understand
Paulís thrust here. Christ was the logical extension and conclusion of
the Old Testament Scriptures. See Romans 10:4.
E. "who was born of the seed of David according
to the flesh"
2. The Old Testament Scriptures were inspired
of God. See 2 Peter 1:19-21 and 2 Timothy 3:16-17.
3. These Scriptures testified of the coming Messiah.
See John 5:39.
1. The Old Testament stated that the
Messiah would be born of the house of David. See 2 Samuel 7:12-13 and Psalm
132:11. See also Matthew 1:1.
F. "and declared to be the Son of God with power
according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead."
2. This would prove to those who knew
the Law of Moses that Jesus met the fleshly qualifications that would be
necessary for Messiahship.
1. "By his genealogy he was proved to
be the seed of David; but the final proof that he was the Son of God was
his resurrection from the dead" (2)
G. "Through Him we have received grace and apostleship"
a. The power of God was shown in the
resurrection. See Ephesians 1:18-20.
2. The resurrection of the dead was the great vindication
of the preaching of the Apostles concerning Jesusí Messiahship. Without
it, their preaching would be useless. See 1 Corinthians 15:14
3. The "Spirit of Holiness" undoubtedly refers
to the Holy Spirit. Paul refers to the Holy Spirit raising up Jesus in
1. Paul understood that he was saved
by grace. "But by the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace toward
me was not in vain; but I labored more abundantly than they all, yet not
I, but the grace of God which was with me" (1 Corinthians 15:10).
H. "for obedience to the faith among all nations
for His name"
2. Paul is probably referring to two things,
the grace by which he was saved and the fact that he was placed into the
apostleship, even though he was not one of the original apostles.
1. Paul links obedience inseparably
to faith. Paul would have been shocked by those today who will declare
that there is no relationship between obeying God and salvation by faith.
I. "among whom you also are the called of Jesus
2. Paul joins obedience and faith in Romans 1:6
and Romans 16:26.
1. As Paul and the other apostles were
called by the Lord, all Christians are called by Jesus through the gospel.
See 2 Thessalonians 2:14.
A. "To all who are in Rome, beloved
of God, called to be saints"
Romans 1:8 - "First, I thank my God through Jesus
Christ for you all, that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world.
9 - For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of
His Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers,
10 - making request if, by some means, now at last I may find a way in
the will of God to come to you. 11 - For I long to see you, that I may
impart to you some spiritual gift, so that you may be established; 12 -
that is, that I may be encouraged together with you by the mutual faith
both of you and me. 13 - Now I do not want you to be unaware, brethren,
that I often planned to come to you (but was hindered until now), that
I might have some fruit among you also, just as among the other Gentiles."
1. It is significant that Paul does
not address on congregation in Rome. It is likely that there were a number
of congregations of Godís people in the Imperial city. See Romans 16:5.
B. "Grace to you and peace from God our Father and
the Lord Jesus Christ."
2. The Christians were "beloved of God."
a. This is a term of endearment. God
loves His people in a very special way. See also 2 Corinthians 6:18; Romans
3. "Called to be saints"
a. Saint comes from the Greek work hagios,
which literally mean "blameless, consecrated, a holy one." The New Testament
makes no distinction between all Christians. We are all saints.
1. There has been much written about
how this is a twin greeting to both Gentile and Jew.
2. Grace was a salutation that was often used
3. The term peace was used among the Jews. See
a. Nygren believes that this salutation
goes beyond "an inner state of and undisturbed soul" to the "sharing of
a spiritual reality." (3)
b. It is undoubtedly seen in Jesus promise to
give his disciples peace that the world cannot give. See John 14:27.
c. It is the "peace of God which passes all understanding."
See Philippians 4:7
Romans 1:14 - I am a debtor both to Greeks and
to barbarians, both to wise and to unwise. 15 - So, as much as is in me,
I am ready to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome also. 16 - For I
am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation
for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek. 17
- For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as
it is written, "The just shall live by faith."
A. "First, I thank God..... that your faith is spoken
of throughout the whole world."
1. The faith shown here would be their
practice of Christianity. They had a great zeal for serving the Lord.
B. "For God is my witness"
a. They had a need for a strong faith.
They were in the center of the Roman Empire. Pagan worship, along with
the Roman state religion, was strong. There would be an ongoing pressure
to give in and deny the faith.
b. It was also the central position of Rome that
would enable their zeal for the Lord to be known through the Roman world.
Travelers would carry back work of their faith. This word had been taken
back to Paul.
1. Paul invokes the name of God in a
serious oath. Oaths were never outlawed, just the misuse of frivolous ones.
C. "I make mention of you always in my prayers"
2. Jesus and James both have in mind this type
of oath. See Matthew 5:33-37 and James 5:12.
3. This can be readily seen by the fact that.
a. Jesus allowed himself to be placed
under an oath. See Matthew 26:63-64.
b. The fact that Paul used an oath
c. The fact that the heavenly Father swore by
himself. See Hebrews 6:16-17.
1. Paul was always praying for them.
This was a great tribute to Paulís prayer life.
D. "For I long to see you, that I may impart to
you some spiritual gift"
2. This shows a great tenderness and love on
the part of the great apostle. In spite of having never met them personally
he was still vitally concerned with their spiritual progress.
1. The imparting of spiritual gifts
were given by the laying on of the apostles hands. This was the only way
in which the miraculous spirits (i.e. speaking in tongues, healing the
sick, raising the dead, etc) were ever given. See Acts 8:14ff.
E. "that is, that I may be encouraged together with
you by the mutual faith both of you and me."
a. If there were any spiritual gifts
in the Roman churches (See Romans 12:6) it is likely that they were brought
there by Christians who had be given them by apostles while in other areas.
2. It seems likely from this passage that an apostle
had not visited them as late as A.D. 58. This is in spite of the Roman
Catholic tradition that Peter organized the church and was the "first Pope"
of Rome. This whole notion seems strange in the light of Romans.
a. If Peter were Bishop of Rome, why
was there still a need for certain spiritual gifts?
b. Why didnít Paul address the apostle in his
letter to the Romans. There is not a single, passing mention of Peterís
presence at the Roman capitol.
1. The imparting of the spiritual gift
would aid Paul as well. He would be built up by sharing in their faith.
It is always a joy to share in the faith of other Christians.
F. "Now I do not want you to be unaware, brethren,
that I often planned to come to you"
2. Paul was making it clear that they had something
to offer to him. This must have cheered the Roman Christian. Paul was never
haughty or solicitous in his attitude toward other brethren. He always
sought to treat other brethren courteously and with respect and honor.
3. "To confer upon them some spiritual gift would
certainly be a comfort to them, and to see their increase of faith and
usefulness would be a comfort to him." (4)
1. It was Paulís desire to go to Rome
to preach. The baptism of the Holy Spirit, which the apostles received,
did not mean that they had no free will. Paul desired to go to Rome much
earlier than he actually did. Paul does not go into detail as to why he
was hindered in his desire.
2. Christians sometime have their prayers answered
in ways that are different than they expect. Paul had his desire fulfilled.
He was able to go to Rome to preach and teach. But there is no doubt that
he had expected to go as a free man at liberty in the imperial city. Instead,
he went as a prisoner appealing to Caesar. He still had his desire, to
preach the gospel in Rome.
A. "I am a debtor both to Greeks and
to barbarians, both to wise and to unwise"
1. Paul felt a keen debt because he
understood that he had been saved by the grace of God. He was not deserving
of salvation. He had been an enemy of the cross.
B. "So, as much as is in me, I am ready to preach
the gospel to you who are in Rome also"
a. See 1 Timothy 1:12-16
2. How did he feel that debt. Because he was saved
in felt a burden to save as many sinners as possible.
3. "The older translations read, ĎI am debtor,í
but this English word Ďdebtorí now has the connotation of Ďowing money
toí and this is hardly the idea here. What Paul is expressing is his feeling
of obligation to preach the Gospel to as many men as he could get to."
1. He was not just ready to preach the
gospel in Rome, he was eager to preach it.
C. "For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ"
1. "For I am not ashamed" - He was proud
to preach the gospel, even though he had suffered, and would suffer, great
persecution for the cause of Christ. See 2 Timothy 1:8, 12. In fact, Paul
believed that the shame would have been if he had not preached the gospel.
See 1 Corinthians 9:16.
D. "for it is the power of God to salvation for
everyone who believes"
1. Here was the reason why he was proud
to proclaim the gospel.
E. "for the Jew first and also for the Greek"
2. It was Godís power, or means, of salvation.
a. Power comes from a Greek word dunamis,
which literally mean, "force (lit. or fig.); spec. miraculous power (usually
by impl. a miracle itself):--ability, abundance, meaning, might (-ily,
-y, -y deed), (worker of) miracle (-s), power, strength, violence, mighty
3. The gospel is the means by which God draws sinners
to Him. In the gospel there are:
b. We can gather that the gospel is a great,
powerful force that God uses for the salvation of sinners.
a. Facts to be believed
b. Commands to be obeyed. See Romans 10:16
c. Promises to be received. See Acts 2:38-39.
1. The gospel would be for all people.
See Galatians 2:26-28.
F. "For in it the righteousness of God is revealed
from faith to faith;"
2. That gospel would be first taken to the Jews.
The gospel first was preached to the Jews on the day of Pentecost.
3. It would be about ten years later before the
Gentiles would receive the truth. See Acts 10-11.
1. Through the gospel Godís means for
making man righteous is revealed. "The righteousness of God" is Godís attribute
of sinlessness. It is through the gospel that we are made sinless.
2. "From faith to faith" cannot mean a faith
only system from beginning to end. It also is a poor translation to render
it "faith from first to last", although it is valid to understand the gospel
in that context when properly understand faith.
a. It seems to mean that it takes faith
to accept what God has revealed and a continuing faith to live by itís
G. "as it is written, "The just shall
live by faith."
WHY ALL MANKIND NEEDS
1. This is far different from the justification
my the Law of Moses (or any Law dependence for perfect keeping for that
matter). The Jews among the Roman brethren had been used to the concept
of justification by means of the Law of Moses. Paul deals with that and
destroys it. See Romans 10:3.
2. See also Habbakkuk 2:4. See also Hebrews 10:38.
3. The concept here seems to be not a one time
acknowledgment of faith, but a life of faithfulness or fidelity.
Paul is about to answer the question
concerning why God will judge those who "obey not the gospel" (1 Thessalonians
1:7-9). It is not a mindless urge for revenge, but the displeasure of a
sinless God toward rebellious man. Paul will prove that both Jews and Gentiles
are without excuse. All have been give sufficient light to follow Jehovah.
Both have witness, the Gentiles in natural revelation, the Jews in special
revelation. Therefore, all mankind is without excuse!
The Gentiles Are Without
Excuse For Their Sin
Romans 1:18 - "For the wrath
of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness
of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, 19 - because what may
be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them. 20 -
For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly
seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power
and Godhead, so that they are without excuse,"
A. "For the wrath of God
is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of
Romans 1:21-23 " because, although
they knew God, they did not glorify Him as God, nor were thankful, but
became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened.
22 - Professing to be wise, they became fools, 23 - and changed the glory
of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man; and birds
and four-footed animals and creeping things."
1. Paul is going to tell
us why there is a need for the gospel. Mankind has departed from Godís
way and has become wicked.
B. "who suppress the truth in unrighteousness"
2. It is contrary to Godís eternal
nature for Him to allow sin to go unpunished. All sin, whether directly
against Him or not, is in reality rebellion against the Creator.
3. This wrath is not a mindless
desire for vengeance, but is the expression of a sinless Godís displeasure
against wicked and sinful man.
1. Reese maintains that
there are two possible interpretations to this phrase. (6)
2. The word "suppress"
can two possible meanings.
C. "because what may be known of God
is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them..."
a. It can mean to "hold
fast or observe"
3. With this in mind Reese gives two
b. It can also mean "to hold down,
keep back, restrain, hinder."
a. The Gentiles might
retain some lingering truth, but do not carry it out in their lives.
b. The Gentiles are seeking to
suppress the spread of the truth in society. In the general context of
the passage, this seems to be the more satisfactory interpretation.
1. God has left behind
certain evidences, which the logical man can use as proof that an eternal
being created both him and the universe. See Acts 14:16-17 and Psalm 19:1-3.
D. " even His eternal power and Godhead,
so that they are without excuse"
2. It is interesting that there
had always been those who believed in the one true God scattered among
the Gentiles throughout the centuries.
a. Melchizedek, Jethro,
b. The Greeks had Solon and Plato,
who believed in one Supreme Creator.
c. Nebuchadnezzar and Darius declared
publicly their believe in the one true Creator.
d. There were likely those in every
generation and race who read the evidence from nature and trusted in the
1. They could see that
there was a great Creator by looking at nature. They could tell that He
had to be majestic indeed in order, that He was not merely a glorified
man or beast.
a. The original Greek
literally means here "divine nature" instead of "godhead." We can deduce
that Godís nature is logical, loving, and caring from natural revelation.
2. The Gentiles are without excuse.
They cannot plead ignorance.
3. This implies an important principle
for today. All mankind is lost, not because they have rejected the gospel,
but because they have sinned. There is adequate evidence to know that God
exists and has made the world. Man has the responsibility to seek God.
A. "because, although
they knew God..."
Verses 24-27 "Therefore God also
gave them up to uncleanness, in the lusts of their hearts, to dishonor
their bodies among themselves, 25 - who exchanged the truth of God for
the lie, and worshipped and served the creature rather than the Creator,
who is blessed forever. Amen. 26 - For this reason God gave them up to
vile passions. For even their women exchanged the natural use for what
is against nature. 27 - Likewise also the men, leaving the natural use
of the woman, burned in their lust for one another, men with men committing
what is shameful, and receiving in themselves the penalty of their error
which was due."
1. It is wrong to say
that man has "developed" monotheism. The fact is that the believe in the
one true God was a condition of early man and that he devolved to a corrupt
polytheism, not evolved to a higher religion.
B. "but became futile in their thoughts,
and their foolish hearts were darkened."
a. Notice that God had
not only sent nature. He also spoke to different individuals during the
centuries outside of Judaism as priests or prophets. We know that this
was the case with Melchizedek and Jethro. Why should there be any reason
why this did not continue? Godís law changed with respect to the Jews,
it continued as it had with the Gentiles. It continued to be a patriarchal
system. Gentiles rejected God, God did not cast off without reason.
2. Paul reveals two reasons for the
disintegration of Gentile society.
a. They did not glorify
God in their worship - Once one closes his eyes to the true and living
God and begins to walk after his own thoughts he begins to stray from the
right and wholesome course.
b. They were not thankful - Gratitude
seems such a little thing today but it really is not. It is stating that
someone is essential to your continued well being and that you appreciate
their actions. Ingratitude is self-willed. This is one reason why this
began the downhill slide toward idolatry. When one is not grateful to the
Creator of life he will natural invent explanations of lifeís origin that
will elevate man, not the one who made man.
1. We must not think that
they happened overnight. It was the result of many generations. Men began
to turn away from God slowly and came to walk more and more in darkness.
Then more that one walks separate from the light that God has given the
more foolish and silly they will become.
C. "Professing to be wise, they became
1. They sought to walk
by their own wisdom. They thought they were independent of God and smarter
than God. God allowed them to walk by the own path and they show how foolish
they really were.
D. "and changed the glory of the incorruptible
God into an image made like corruptible man; and birds and four-footed
animals and creeping things."
2. This must surely be warning
to todayís "wise" men. We have largely abandoned God to walk in our own
wisdom. What has been the result? We have discarded a logical view of manís
origin (special creation) for one that is totally illogical (organic evolution).
We have swapped the worship of a personal God who makes us responsible
for our action for humanism which makeís man god and sill eastern religions
which makes everything god.
3. See 1 Corinthians 3:19-20; Jeremiah
4. "Mankind is regarded as having
lost a truer perception of God once possessed, idolatry being a sign of
culpable degradation of the human race - not, as some would have us now
believe, a stage in manís emergence from brutality. Scripture ever represents
the human race as having fallen and become degraded: not as having risen
gradually to any intelligent conceptions of God at all." (7)
1. Because man could not
stand to have a God who was greater than him, and because he still had
to yearning within him to worship, he turned to gods of his own choosing.
2. The list mentioned here seem
to represent idolatry into two basic groups. The Greeks and Romans man
a pantheon of God in human form. They were glorified men, showing manís
desire to be like God. The Egyptianís worshipped a multitude of animals,
thus attempting to bring God down on manís level.
A. "Therefore God also
gave them up to uncleanness..."
Romans 1:28 - And even as they
did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a
debased mind, to do those things which are not fitting; 29 - being filled
with all unrighteousness, sexual immorality, wickedness, covetousness,
maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, evil-mindedness; they
are whisperers, 30 - backbiters, haters of God, violent, proud, boasters,
inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 - undiscerning, untrustworthy,
unloving, unforgiving, unmerciful; 32 - who, knowing the righteous judgment
of God, that those who practice such things are deserving of death, not
only do the same but also approve of those who practice them.
1. When man turns his
moral compass from God he turns to the only other compass he can, that
of hedonism. When men seek to simply fulfill their desires apart from a
relationship with his creator there is nothing that is too sickening or
perverse to try.
B. "For this reason God gave them
up to vile passions..."
2. "God gave them up" - This phrase
may best understood when comparing Godís reaction to the Jews and their
apostasy. God sent prophet after prophet to the Jews in an effort to keep
a righteous remnant alive for the coming of the messiah. God did no such
thing with the Gentiles. He allowed them to continue in sin and follow
a. The Greek word here
is paradidomi, which means, "hand over to the power of another."
3. The consequences of God giving
them up - They dishonored their own bodies with sins that violated Godís
will. Paul will described the exact meaning of "dishonoring their own bodies."
4. All of the sin described is
a result of mankind refusing to honor the one who created them.
1. The "vile passions"
described here are lesbianism and homosexuality. Both of these practices
are against nature, i.e. contrary to the normal practice that God had intended.
C. "receiving in themselves the penalty
of their error which was due"
2. Notice what Paul has to say
about these two sinful practices.
a. They are unnatural,
or against nature.
3. This sin was pervasive in ancient
society. Barclay states that 13 of the first 14 Roman Emperors were homosexual.
has been estimated, although probably impossible to confirm accurately,
that up to ten percent of our population is either homosexuals or lesbians.
b. Heterosexuality is the normal
means of sexual activity. It has Godís blessings, in contract to all others
which are immoral.
c. Homosexuality is shameful.
d. Those who engage in such acts
are deserving of Godís full judgment on their sinful acts.
e. It most also be noted that here
Paul describes the very homosexual act as being shameful. It is the burning
desire (as opposed to the heterosexual desire) that leads to sin. Heterosexuality
is never condemned in itself, just the abuse of it outside the marriage
bond. Homosexuality is never cast in the same light. The very act, not
just the abuse, is always condemned.
1. When one violates Godís
natural laws, which homosexuality and lesbianism do, there are always consequences.
The average homosexual man has a life expectancy of 43, as opposed to 73
for the general population. It is a violent way of life. It is a life of
unhappiness. The average homosexual will seek man partners in the course
of a year.
2. One of the primary reasons for
the shorter life expectancy, of course, is the disease factor. Homosexuality,
because of itís promiscuous nature, breeds all kinds of disease which are
spread. It is no wonder that Aids has spread so quickly among the homosexual
community, due to the extreme promiscuity of many homosexuals.
3. There is no evidence that Aids
is a direct judgment sent from God. But Paul is saying that their wicked
conduct brings about natural consequences which are valid judgments from
the Lord. Just as a drunk will eventually develop cirrhosis of the liver,
so to does any sin that harms the body carry with it consequences.
A. "And even as they did
not like to retain God in their knowledge..."
1. Paul has already said
that the present day idol worshipers have no excuse for the conduct. There
is clear evidence for anyone to conclude that there is a God who created
the world and that he cannot be the monstrosities that the ancients were
used to worshipping.
B. "being filled with all unrighteousness..."
2. Because they had no desire to
keep the memory of a God who was above them and required obedience God
allowed them to commit every sin imaginable.
3. A willful ignorance of God brings
on a kind of "insanity" because it blinds the person to what is truly right
and in their best interest. For example, those who engage in homosexuality
cannot see the problem as being that of clearly destructive behavior but
see the problem as whether or not one wears condoms.
1. Paul proceeds to give
a long list of sins which plagued the Gentiles because they departed from
God and did not attempt to keep Him in their memory.
2. The rest of the list is pretty
self-explanatory. All come when a person forgets God and turned away from
the moral restraints that God has placed on our conduct. "...sexual immorality,
wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, strife,
deceit, evil-mindedness; they are whisperers, 30 - backbiters, haters of
God, violent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to
parents, 31 - undiscerning, untrustworthy, unloving, unforgiving, unmerciful."
3. A couple of these bear a little
a. "Evil-mindedness" comes
from the person who gives his mind over to doing nothing but thinking and
imagining thought that would indulge wicked passions. We find the first
example of this in Genesis 6:5. It was symptomatic of the fact that wickedness
was pervasive on the earth and God then proceeded to destroy the inhabitants
of the world by a flood.
b. "Inventors of evil things" -
When one has his mind in the gutter of sin it is natural for a person to
think of new and unique twist on sinful and immoral behavior. For everything
invented for good (i.e. the computer and the Internet) there will be someone
who devise some illegal or immoral use of it.
c. "Disobedient to parents" - This
is a natural result of individual turning their back against God. When
one does not honor God the Father, how can they honor the father and mother
who rear them.
C. "who, knowing the righteous
judgment of God, that those who practice such things are deserving of death,
not only do the same but also approve of those who practice them."
1. The Gentiles knew of
God and the consequences of departing from His way, but continued in their
2. They knew that those who turned
against God and engaged in sinful, immoral behavior deserved the judgment
of God. These restraints did not prevent them from committing the wickednesses
mentioned. Even in ancient times the things mentioned were understood and
a. The "deserving of death"
is often applied exclusively to homosexuality and lesbianism." This is
a limitation of the passage. It refers to all the sins mentioned. Any person
who continues unrepentant of these sins is deserving being cut off from
God eternally. Praise God that He has sent His son so that we may have
hope of forgiveness from our sins!
3. What was even worse,
they sought to recruit others for the immoral behavior. This is true of
all wicked persons. Misery indeed loves company. Sinful conduct is somehow
considered moral natural is a group engages in it.
1. Roy C. Deaver, Romans, God's Plan For Man's
Righteousness (Austin TX.: Biblical Notes Publications, 1992), 8-8.
2. R.L. Whiteside, Commentary on Romans (Denton,
TX.: Privately published by Miss Inys Whiteside, 1945), 9.
3. Aders Nygren, Commentary on Romans (Philadelphia:
Fortress Press, 1949), 58.
4. Whiteside, op sit, 13.
5. Gareth L. Reese, New Testament Epistles: Romans
(Moberly,MO: Scripture Exposition Books, 1987) p 16.
6. Ibid, p. 25
7. J. Barmby, The Pulpit Commentary, Commentary on
Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdman's Publishing) 1978, p. 13.
8. Reese, op cit, p. 33.
9. William Barclay, Commentary on Romans (Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Baker Book House) p. 25.
Copyright 1999 by Grady
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